Saturday, February 8, 2020
Umberto Eco and Hyper-reality Concept - Essay Example While it is a clearly tangible technology, hyper-reality is a concept still simmering in the minds which we use sometimes to describe something as unreal as the Disneyland structures. Is it then just postmodernist gibberish when writers like Eco and Baudrillard came up with the concept of hyper-reality? We shall now discuss EcoÃ¢â¬â¢s contention with the help of other significant writings on the subject. According to postmodern writers and by that we do not mean Eco alone, hyper-reality is a representation of reality which is better than the original. Eco argues for example that a recreated diorama is more effective than the actual scene (Eco 1986:8). Jean Baudrillard supports this argument when he says that Americans like to see reproductions of their heroes and monuments as simulacra. Simulacra is thus something which is "more real" than the original (1988:41). Meaghan Morris thus defines simulacra as something where, "the true (like the real) begins to be reproduced in the image of the pseudo, which begins to become the true (1988:5)." In the same vein, Umberto Eco argues that for Americans "the past must be preserved and celebrated in full-scale authentic c opy; a philosophy of immortality as duplication (1986:6)." With these views, Eco urges us to go on a "journey into Hyperreality in search of instances where the American imagination demands the real thing, and, to attain it, must fabricate the absolute fake (1986:7)." Umberto Eco maintains that America is obsessed with simulations. The never-ending series of hyperstructures that recreate reality serve as a proof of this obsession with something that is better than the original. Baudrillard (1983) puts it a little differently but supports EcoÃ¢â¬â¢s contention. He argues that the reason American like simulations is because they are perpetually trapped in the present.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Child Abuse Essay If you were placed in a position were your life was put into danger would you risk escaping? This question was asked by Jaycee Dugard everyday during her eighteen year being held captive. In her memoir A Stolen Life, Jaycee Dugard explains to us why she didnt try to run from her abductor Philip Garrido even though she was given so many chances to do so. In most situations it is very difficult for victims to escape their abusers control. In the past it was near impossible for victims of abduction to escape safely on their own. With the realization that We have seen a significent increase in the number of thru the means of strangers, family or friends (Amber Alert 1). It has been easier to help child abduction victims with systems like the Amber Alert system, yet it is still difficult for the victims to leave on their own. Abuse victims along with Dugard also struggle with gaining the strength to leave. Years after Dugard was rescued she says You must find your voice and not be afraid to speak up (Dugard 148). Something she regrets doing while being held captive. In the end the claim that victims of abuse should take more responsibility to escaoe their abusers control should be challenges because of the difficulty to escape their abusers control and to gain the strength to leave. Not only do child victims of abuse deal with the control of their abuser, but many adults deal with the same issue. Many women deal with the challenge of leaving their abusive partner, but fail because of the partner control and power they have over their victims. Many women find it difficult because they remain emotionally and economically dependent on their batterer (Domestic Violence 1). In most marital situations their is a cycle of abuse and the familys life becomes a cycle of violence. The man who was terrifying and intimidating turns into a remorseful, needy, and dependent man. The woman who was battered then will feel sorry for the man and recommit to him in a fantasized hope that the abuse wont happen again. But the cycle of abuse will begin again, often becoming worse (Domestic Violence 2). In order to escape this abuse the cycle must be broken. According to Blich, Stranger kidnapping victimizes more females then males, occurs primarily at outdoor locations, victimizes both teenagers and school-age children, is associated with sexual assaults in the case of girl victims (Blich 1). After being abducted children are usually brainwashed and manipulated, gaining the abductor even more control. This is what happened in Dugards situation. Philip Garrido, DugardsÃ abductor, told her that he was hurting her so he wouldnt have to hurt other little girls, thereby making Dugard feel that if she did try to leave it would be her fault for the pain he caused others (Dugard 158). In doing so Garrido gained complete control over Dugard. However strong you are most can agree that it is very difficult to leave somebody you are dependent on, yet it is necessary if you want to go on happily. Therefore th e claim that abuse victims should take more responsibility to escape their control is difficult for anyone. Many will argue that people who are abused should take more responsibility to to escape from their abuser. In some situations outsiders will argue that we should outsmart our abuser and learn from it making us stronger to leave. According to The Washington Post, They escaped these things not through the efforts of good samaritans, but through recognizing a bad situation and either getting away from it, avoiding it or screaming and kicking to draw attention (St. George 1). This proves that children are capable not responsible. Another argument is that the child who is being abducted should be able to help themselves and escape the situation. The child should do whatever is necessary to stay out of the car, because once the child is in that car, it dramatically reduces the chances of escape (St. George 2). This is a lot of responsibility put onto a young child. How do we expect an eight year-old girl to escape a potential abuser if many forty year-old women cant leave an abuser they have been with for years. During Dugards eighteen year abduction several visuals were taken to show the pain of her loved ones. It can be proven that many were concerned with her abduction. In the visual Missing published in The Telegraph (2009). We are shown both Dugards mother, Terry Probyn, and step-father, Carl Probyn, they look heartbroken and distressed. Some would argue that with how much Jaycee Dugard knew she was loved, she should of gained enough strength and motivation to escape and go back to living her everyday life. However she was unaware of this while being held captive. The argument that in domestic abuse options are available to leave or available to encourage victims to leave is true, yet difficult. Victims have the option of professional help and gaining awareness of the situation. With the cycle of abuse it is very hard to get to the point were you understand you need the help, then there is the struggle of actually going ahead and doing it. Regardless of the several arguments that people can challenge we have proof from specificÃ situations like Dugards along with more common issue like marital dispute that without finding overall strength and gaining the courage to escape the abuser control it is impossible to escape and go back to your normal life. Gaining strength is one of the most difficult things to do in life. One way we gain strength is having support and happiness. How do we gain strength if we dont have either? This faces millions of people daily who are in abusive relationships. They simply cant find the strength to leave. In Dugards memoir she says although she is unhappy she is too afraid of the risk of leaving and doesnt know how she would be able to take care of herself and her two daughters. One of the reasons I stayed was I wanted my kids to be safe. The outside was scary for me. I was so afraid that if i left or tried to leave and take them both with me I wouldnt be able to protect them (Dugard 276). Even her knowing the fact that if she were to escape successfully her daughters could have a much better life, yet if they werent successful they would have to continue living in hiding in the backyard of Garridos home. She didnt have enough strength to take the risk although the successful end results were so much better then her current situation. In abuse situations victims struggle with the same issue of strength. In between the cycle of abuse there is only a small gap between the man being violent and the women feeling remorseful and forgiving him. Where gaining the strength in between that small gap is difficult especially when it would need to be regained the next time the abuse restarts. Women also have other options. Most women have a supportive family or homes they can go to keep safe. But strength is key and difficult to obtain when one is constantly bringing you down. Although more options are available to leave, like hot-line cards in bathrooms for abuse victims or Dugard being taken into public with the option to run, we need strength to take them. Strength is a necessity to leave making the claim that abuse victims are responsible for leaving their abuser difficult to prove. In conclusion finding the courage to leave an abuser is an unthinkable challenge to those placed in that position. Without finding the strength and escaping the overwhelming control of the abuser its near impossible. As time goes on there becomes more options for abuse to happen or lead to abuse. One in five children ten to seventeen receive unwanted sexual solicitations online (Blich 1), which can lead to a more serious abuse. No matter how different the situationsÃ are the abuse victims suffer through they can relate back to the same struggles. According to Jayvee Dugard after her long term abuse she refers to life today as A light that I thought had been extinguished was coming back to life (Dugard 238). While in the position of abuse its difficult to find the strength, but it can be gained again. The difficulty of escaping the abuser will also be difficult. It will remain difficult while recovering from the abuse. The claim that people should take more responsibility to escape their abusers? False.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Contrary Interpretations of The Yellow Wallpaper Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ was first published in New England Magazine in 1892.Ã Charlotte Perkins Gilman, an advocate for the advancement of women, authored the short story.Ã She intended the piece to bring to light the inherent ineptitude of the Weir Mitchell Ã¢â¬Å"rest cure.Ã¢â¬ Ã Though this subject is addressed, many other pertinent topics are broached, ever so subtly.Ã Other themes in the book include the role of women in a society dominated by men, the role of the mother, and how oppression can affect the mind of a creative individual.Ã These themes, however, can be altered merely by how the tale is edited.Ã I intend to point out some of the pertinent differences that exist between the full text of the story and an abridged version, describing how they give the same story contrary interpretations.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To better understand the differences I will be noting, one may find it helpful to be familiar with the basic plot of Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow Wallpaper.Ã¢â¬ Ã Both versions relate the story of a woman losing her mind.Ã She has not been feeling well for some time, so her husband, a physician, decides a summer spent relaxing in the country would benefit her.Ã While there, she is forbidden to write in her journal, as it indulges her imagination, which is not in accordance with her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes.Ã Despite this, the narrator makes entries in the journal whenever she has the opportunity.Ã Through these entries we learn of her obsession with the wallpaper in her bedroom.Ã She is enthralled with it and studies the paper for hours.Ã She fancies she sees a woman trapped behind the pattern in the paper.Ã The story reaches its climax when her husband must force his way into the bedroom, only to find... ...woman being driven mad by her position in life.Ã The wallpaper merely serves as a catalyst for her breakdown.Ã This interpretive discrepancy, as well as the loss of authenticity and finally the weakening of JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s power, ultimately leaves the two versions of Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ open to varying interpretations. Ã Ã Works Cited Gilman, Charlotte Perkins.Ã The Yellow Wallpaper.Ã Ed. Dale M. Bauer.Ã Bedford Cultural Edition.Ã Boston: Bedford/St. MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s, 1998. ---. Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow Wallpaper.Ã¢â¬ Ã Great American Short Stories.Ã Pleasantville: ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Digest, 1977.Ã 195-206. Works Consulted Golden, Catherine, ed. The Captive Imagination: A Casebook on "The Yellow Wallpaper." New York: Feminist Press, 1992 Kasmer, Lisa. "Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper': A Symptomatic Reading." Literature and Psychology. 36, (1990): 1-15. Ã
Monday, January 13, 2020
Hydraulic fracturing is a process used in nine out of 10 natural gas wells in the United States, where millions of gallons of water, sand and chemicals are pumped underground to break apart the rock and release the gas. Scientists are worried that the chemicals used in fracturing may pose a threat either underground or when waste fluids are handled and sometimes spilled on the surface. The natural gas industry defends hydraulic fracturing, better known as fracking, as safe and efficient. Thomas J. Pyle, president of the Institute for Energy Research, a pro-industry non-profit organization, claims fracking has been Ã¢â¬Å"a widely deployed as safe extraction technique,Ã¢â¬ dating back to 1949. What he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t say is that until recently energy companies had used low-pressure methods to extract natural gas from fields closer to the surface than the current high-pressure technology that extracts more gas, but uses significantly more water, chemicals, and elements. The industry claims well drilling in the Marcellus Shale will bring several hundred thousand jobs, and has minimal health and environmental risk. President Barack Obama in his January 2012 State of the Union, said he believes the development of natural gas as an energy source to replace fossil fuels could generate 600,000 jobs. However, research studies by many economists and others debunk the idea of significant job creation. Barry Russell, president of the Independent Petroleum Association of America, says Ã¢â¬Å"no evidence directly connects injection of fracking fluid into shale with aquifer contamination.Ã¢â¬ Fracking Ã¢â¬Å"has never been found to contaminate a water well,Ã¢â¬ says Christine Cronkright, communications director for the Pennsylvania Department of Health. Research studies and numerous incidents of water contamination prove otherwise. In late 2010, equipment failure may have led to toxic levels of chemicals in the well water of at least a dozen families in Co noquenessing Township in Bradford County. Township officials and Rex Energy, although acknowledging that two of the drilling wells had problems with the casings, claimed there were pollutants in the drinking water before Rex moved into the area. John Fair disagrees. Ã¢â¬Å"Everybody had good water a year ago,Ã¢â¬ Fair told environmental writer and activist Iris Marie Bloom in February 2012. Bloom says residents told her the color of water changed to red, orange, and gray after Rex began drilling. Among the chemicals detected in the well water, in addition to methane gas, were ammonia, arsenic, chloromethane, iron, manganese, t-butyl alcohol, and toluene. While not acknowledging that its actions could have caused the pollution, Rex did provide fresh water to the residents, but then stopped doing so on Feb. 29, 2012, after the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) said the well water was safe. The residents absolutely disagreed and staged protests against Rex; environmental activists and other residents trucked in portable water jugs to help the affected families. The Marcellus Outreach Butler blog (MOB) declared that residentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"lives have been severely disrupted and their health has been severely impacted. To just Ã¢â¬Ëclose the bookÃ¢â¬â¢ on investigations into their troubles when so many indicators point to the accountability of the gas industry for the disruption of their lives is unbelievable . In April 2011, near Towanda, Pa., seven families were evacuated after about 10,000 gallons of wastewater contaminated an agricultural field and a stream that flows into the Susquehanna River, the result of an equipment failure, according to the Bradford County Emergency Management Agency.The following month, DEP fined Chesapeake Energy $900,000, the largest amount in the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s history, for allowing methane gas to pollute the drinking water of 16 families in Bradford County during the previous year. The DEP noted there may have been toxic methane emissions from as many as six wells in five towns. The DEP also fined Chesapeake $188,000 for a fire at a well in Washington County that injured three workers. In January 2012, an equipment failure at a drill site in Susquehanna County led to a spill of several thousand gallons of fluid for almost a half-hour, causing potential pollution, according to the DEP. In its citation to Carizzo Oil and Gas, the DEP strongly recommended that the company cease drilling at all 67 wells Ã¢â¬Å"until the cause of this problem and a solution are identified.Ã¢â¬ In December 2011, the federal Environmental Protection Agency concluded that fracking operations could be responsible for groundwater pollution.Ã¢â¬Å"TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s methods make gas drilling a filthy business. You know itÃ¢â¬â¢s bad when nearby residents can light the water coming out of their tap on fire,Ã¢â¬ says Larry Schweiger, president of the National Wildlife Federation. WhatÃ¢ â¬â¢s causing the fire is the methane from the drilling operations. A ProPublica investigation in 2009 revealed methane contamination was widespread in drinking water in areas around fracking operations in Colorado, Texas, Wyoming, and Pennsylvania. The presence of methane in drinking water in Dimock, Pa., had become the focal point for Josh FoxÃ¢â¬â¢s investigative documentary, Gasland, which received an Academy Award nomination in 2011 for Outstanding Documentary; Fox also received an Emmy for non-fiction directing. FoxÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in fracking intensified when a natural gas company offered $100,000 for mineral rights on property his family owned in Milanville, in the extreme northeast part of Pennsylvania, about 60 miles east of Dimock. Research by a team of scientists from Duke University revealed Ã¢â¬Å"methane contamination of shallow drinking water systems that is associated with shale-gas extraction.Ã¢â¬ The data and conclusions, published in the May 2011 issue of the prestigious Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, note d that not only did most drinking wells near drilling sites have methane, but those closest to the drilling wells, about a half-mile, had an average of 17 times the methane of those of other wells. Ã¢â¬Å"Some of the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturingÃ¢â¬âor liberated by itÃ¢â¬âare carcinogens,Ã¢â¬ Dr. Sandra Steingraber told members of the Environmental Conservation and Health committee of the New York State Assembly. Dr. Steingraber, a biologist and distinguished scholar in residence at Ithaca College, pointed out that some of the chemicals Ã¢â¬Å"are neurological poisons with suspected links to learning deficits in children,Ã¢â¬ while others Ã¢â¬Å"are asthma triggers. Some, especially the radioactive ones, are known to bioaccumulate in milk. Others are reproductive toxicants that can contribute to pregnancy loss.Ã¢â¬ An investigation by New York Times reporter Ian Urbina, based upon thousands of unreported EPA documents and a confidential study by the natural gas industry, concluded, Ã¢â¬Å"Radioactivity in drilling waste cannot be fully diluted in rivers and other waterways.Ã¢â¬ Urbina learned that wastewater from fracking operations was about 100 tim es more toxic than federal drinking water standards; 15 wells had readings about 1,000 times higher than standards. Research by Dr. Ronald Bishop, a biochemist at SUNY/Oneonta, suggests that fracking to extract methane gas Ã¢â¬Å"is highly likely to degrade air, surface water and ground-water quality, to harm humans, and to negatively impact aquatic and forest ecosystems.Ã¢â¬ He notes that Ã¢â¬Å"potential exposure effects for humans will include poisoning of susceptible tissues, endocrine disruption syndromes, and elevated risk for certain cancers.Ã¢â¬ Every well, says Dr. Bishop, Ã¢â¬Å"will generate a sediment discharge of approximately eight tons per year into local waterways, further threatening federally endangered mollusks and other aquatic organisms.Ã¢â¬ In addition to the environmental pollution by the fracking process, Dr. Bishop believes Ã¢â¬Å"intensive use of diesel-fuel equipment will degrade air quality [that could affect] humans, livestock, and crops.Ã¢â¬ Equally important are questions about the impact of as many as 200 diesel-fueled trucks each day bringing water to t he site and then removing the waste water. In addition to the normal diesel emissions of trucks, there are also problems of leaks of the contaminated water. Ã¢â¬Å"We need to know how diesel fuel got into our water supply,Ã¢â¬ says Diane Siegmund, a clinical psychologist from Towanda, Pa. Ã¢â¬Å"It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t there before the companies drilled wells; itÃ¢â¬â¢s here now,Ã¢â¬ she says. Siegmund is also concerned about contaminated dust and mud. Ã¢â¬Å"There is no oversight on these,Ã¢â¬ she says, Ã¢â¬Å"but those trucks are muddy when they leave the well sites, and dust may have impact miles from the well sites.Ã¢â¬ Research Ã¢â¬Å"strongly implicates exposure to gas drilling operations in serious health effects on humans, companion animals, livestock, horses, and wildlife,Ã¢â¬ according to Dr. Michelle Bamberger, a veterinarian, and Dr. Robert E. Oswald, a biochemist and professor of molecular medicine at Cornell University. Their study, published in New Solutions, an academic journal in environmental health, documents evidence of milk contamination, breeding problems, and cow mortality in areas near fracking operation s as higher than in areas where no fracking occurred. Drs. Bamberger and Oswald noted that some of the symptoms present in humans from what may be polluted water from fracking operations include rashes, headaches, dizziness, vomiting, and severe irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. For animals, the symptoms often led to reproductive problems and death. Significant impact upon wildlife is also noted in a 900-page Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) conducted by New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s Department of Environmental Conservation. According to the EIS, Ã¢â¬Å"In addition to loss of habitat, other potential direct impacts on wildlife from drilling in the Marcellus Shale include increased mortality . . . altered microclimates, and increased traffic, noise, lighting, and well flares.Ã¢â¬ The impact, according to the report, Ã¢â¬Å"may include a loss of genetic diversity, species isolation, population declines . . . increased predation, and an increase of invasive species.Ã¢â¬ The report concludes that because of fracking, there is Ã¢â¬Å"little to no place in the study areas where wildlife would not be impacted, [leading to] serious cascading ecological consequences.Ã¢â¬ The impact of course affects the quality of milk and meat production as animals drink and graze near areas that have been taken over by the natural gas industry. The response by the industry and its political allies to the scientific studies of the health and environmental effects of fracking Ã¢â¬Å"has approached the issue in a manner similar to the tobacco industry that for many years rejected the link between smoking and cancer,Ã¢â¬ say Drs. Bamberger and Oswald. Not only do they call for Ã¢â¬Å"full disclosure and testing of air, water, soil, animals, and humans,Ã¢â¬ but point out that with lax oversight, Ã¢â¬Å"the gas drilling boom . . . will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale.Ã¢â¬ Bibliography of Works Cited: http://www.marcellusoutreachbutler.org/ http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/03/19/the-perils-of-fracking/ www.coalitiontoprotectnewyork.org http://psehealthyenergy.net/data/Bamberger_Oswald_NS22_in_press.pdf http://www.scribd.com/doc/97449702/100-Fracking-Victims http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/04/us/04natgas.html?pagewanted=all http://steingraber.com/ http://frack.mixplex.com/content/scientific-study-links-flammable-drinking-water-fracking http://www.hydraulicfracturing.com/Pages/information.aspx http://www.epa.gov/hydraulicfracture/ http://geology.com/articles/hydraulic-fracturing/
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Analysis on American Works of Literature Throughout history there have been many influential writers that have impacted generations. There have been writers from Shakespeare in England to Sun Tzu in China. They have impacted the many generations that followed. America has had many influential writers of its own. Emily Dickinson and Mark Twain are just a few of the many examples of writers that have originated in America. Mark Twain wrote Extracts from Adams Diary a playful short story of how man met woman. Emily Dickinsons Success is Counted Sweetest is a poem on how when one succeeds it brings joy into the effort that was put forth. One may learn a great deal from reading works of literature. The poem Ã¢â¬Å"Success is CountedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The short story brought up many Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ things that would have been curiosities to the first humans. Ã¢â¬Å"Extracts from AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s DiaryÃ¢â¬ brought the modern world a story that the reader could understand in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. Mark Twain wrote the story Ã¢â¬Å"true to formÃ¢â¬ on how real humans would act when interacting (Hope). In the story Adam adapted his situation and began to feel a need for Eve even though he did not want her in the first place. The story shows how sworn couples have to adapt to each other on their strengths and weaknesses. The story teaches how as humans we also go through the emotions of first dislike, then acceptance evolving into being pleased with, transformed to love (Hope). In this short story Mark Twain does an incredible job at incorporating in allusions in this work of literature to readers who know the bible version and this playful more human versio n. The short story teaches how one learns to accept a person if one gives the time to learn to love someone else even when they have many flaws. Eve is shown as being a bit bossy and inconsiderate towards Adam but they time they spend together Adam slowly learns to love her. Adam says: [a]fter all these years, I see that I was mistaken about Eve in the beginning; it is better to live outside the Garden with her than inside it without her (Twain 10). Adam is quoted saying he could not beShow MoreRelatedThe Works of Emily Dickinson726 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Emily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s writing reflects the Realistic period through personal themes: death, isolation, God, marriage, women in society, and love. DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s writing is affected by numerous factors. Among these are her family, the Realism period, and her life experiences. Emily Dickinson herself was a sort of mystery. Emily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s background had a profound effect on her writing. Family always plays an important role in the upbringing of an individual. 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From the introduction of his novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, he says the following: MOST of the adventures recorded in this book really occurred; one or two were experiences of my own, the rest those of boys who were schoolmates of mine. (Twain) They also had realistic conflicts within and between the charactersRead MoreWhy is Alexandre Dumas Famous?1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesall-time. The writing of the book was completed in 1844. Like many of his novels, it is expanded from the plot outlines suggested by his collaborating ghostwriter Auguste Maquet. The main interesting point in this story was the plot as explained by Emily Dickinson where she states The main irony in The Count of Monte Cristo is that Edmond Dantes has everything dear taken away from him, but later he takes revenge and does the same to his conspirators. Also, Dantes takes a liking to Albert de Morcerf beforeRead MorePain1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages- Cicero, Marcus T. The injuries that befall us unexpectedly are less severe than those which are deliberately anticipated. - Cicero, Marcus T. 2 After great pain, a formal feeling comes. The Nerves sit ceremonious, like tombs. - Dickinson, Emily Pains of love be sweeter far than all the other pleasures are. - Dryden, John There is much pain that is quite noiseless; and vibrations that make human agonies are often a mere whisper in the roar of hurrying existence. There are glances
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Generally, prison policy might lack saliency among most individuals. Prison policy seems to have that pattern where it is significant to some and not to others; that is also relevant in states because of their variety in issues. Prison legislation is like most legislation relevant to whom it affects. In this situation we see that prison overcrowding bothers a majority of inmates, some of the courts, and the states. Inmates do not vote, so it is understandable that congress lacks interest. In most involvement on prison overcrowding policy congressional action is close to absent, states are in charge of the legislation, but at times courts have intervened due to prison conditions. Gridlock is seen as a huge factor in policy outcomes. Congressional gridlock could be a factor; congressional gridlock can be looked at as important issues on their agenda that are left unspoken past the close of Congress. Other scholars think of gridlock as the lack of change in policy from the status quo (Saeki, 2009). A concept receiving attention in the American political environment in studies of gridlock is the polarization of the two partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ policy preferences (Jones 2001). In MayhewÃ¢â¬â¢s and KellyÃ¢â¬â¢s numerator-based data, during divided government there is less salient legislation being produced. Although, legislative productivity between unified and divided government differ, it is not statistically significant. In regardless, BinderÃ¢â¬â¢s data on legislative agendas, specifically emphasizingShow MoreRelatedThe Incarceration Of Prison Policy913 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmore violence and causing mental deterioration. Some prisoners may even end up spending a n entire life sentence in solitary confinement, which defeats the purpose of rehabilitation. It is often viewed as a mere act of torture. According to the Prison Policy Organization, Ã¢â¬Å"An estimated 56 percent of state prisoners, 45 percent of federal prisoners, and 64 percent of jail inmates have a mental health problemÃ¢â¬ (Mental). Most inmates need help, not to just be locked away and kept apart from the worldRead MoreThe Incarceration Of The Prison Policy Institute1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Attention TIA Credibility Thesis/ Topic statement INTRODUCTION I. According to the prison policy Institute there are currently 2.4 million Americans incarcerated in the United States with nearly 40% of that number being drug related offenses. Further the United states only makes up five percent of the worlds population, but we make up 25% of the worlds prison population and if you factor in the 40% of that 25% being drug offenders you can see that nearly a tenth of the worlds incarcerated areRead MoreMass Incarceration802 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAlexander identifies the racialized mass incarceration problem that we have in our criminal justice system. Reading the book, you can see that mass incarceration is a social problem. This means that the problem can follow the six stages of the policy process. If I were a claimsmaker, I could assert that mass incarceration is a problem by following the six stages. In the claimsmaking stage, I would claim that the War on Drugs creates the racialized mass incarceration in our society today. To show thatRead MoreRacial Disparities Of Mass Incarceration1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRacial disparities in mass incarceration Introduction Mass Incarceration in the United States has been a large topic of choice because rapid growth in the prison and jail populations, the long sentences the inmates face, and the inability for some inmates to incorporate themselves back into society. Since the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s the U.S. prison population quadrupled from 158 to 635 people per 100,000, causing the U.S. to gain the title of country with the highest incarceration rate. (Massoglia, Firebaugh, Read MoreMass Incarceration : A Major Problem Within The United States1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMass incarceration has recently become a major problem within the United States. Although crime rates have dropped since the 1990s, incarceration rates have soared. This trend is largely associated with increased enforcement of drug-related crimes. Unfortunately, though not surprisingly, this problem involves racial discrepancies when regarding these mass incarcerations. Incarcerations appear to be the most prominent throughout urban areas and t he south, which happen to be the areas where AfricanRead MoreMass Incarceration : A New Form Of Slavery Essay1555 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMass Incarceration: A New Form of Slavery in the United States Lorena P. Ambriz History 12A Abstract Starting in the 1970s, the rising rate of imprisonment came to be known as Mass Incarceration. What was once an average of 100 people getting imprisoned for every 100,000 adults, prior to the 1970s, has now grown to become more than 600 individuals per every 100,000 adults imprisoned. With only five present of the total world population, The United States holds an astonishing 25 percent of theRead MoreThe Lack Of Reintegration Programs And Mass Incarceration Of African Americans912 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesreintegration programs and mass incarceration of African Americans in the United. Mass incarceration amongst African Americans has had a catastrophic impact on families and communities and continues to create a cycle of discrimination, which makes its nearly impossible as a race to progress. Because of the soaring incarceration rate in the United States, many prisons are over populated and lack resources and support to help inmates succeed once released from prisons. Since there is an insufficiencyRead MoreAmerican Incarceration : Where We Are, And What Can Be Done?1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesYasir Choudhury Dr. JoÃ £o Vargas UGS 303 Mass Incarceration 5 October 2015 American Incarceration: Where We Are, and What Can be Done From its early inception as a necessary aspect of modern society to its broken state that can be seen today, the American penal system has changed radically in recent history from an institution that performed the duty of safeguarding the public from those too dangerous to be left unsupervised to a business model concerned more with generating a profit for shareholdersRead MoreThe Sentencing Policies For Crimes1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhen America changed the sentencing policies for crimes, primarily drug crimes, in America, the effect this change would have in the poor communities were impossible to imagine. The policies which were changed to get tougher on drug crimes on the federal level followed with mass incarceration in the prison system. This was especially true with young African American males in largely poor communities. So these policies not only created a mass incarceration but also racially targeted certain raceRead MoreMass Incarceration And Its Effects On The Unit ed States Essay1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMass incarceration is a major problem in the United States. Since the tough on crime movement that began to emphasize more punishment and creating new policies such as; three strikes law, truth-in sentencing laws, mandatory sentencing, and determinate sentencing, our prisons and jails have become overcrowded. The three strikes law increases the prison sentence of an offender convicted of three felonies or serious crime. Usually the punishment ranges from a minimum of 25 years to life in prison. The
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Early Settlers and Native Americans The entire clash of two different cultures dates back all the way into the beginning of the early European arrival. All the different countries in Europe were all trying to find there own place in the new world by claiming the land for their country. The English were among one of the first Europeans to arrive in the new world; and establish the first permanent settlement called Jamestown. The English later extended their settlements along the Atlantic coast, colonizing Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay. It was not very long after the English arrived, came the French to the new world. They too were searching to acquire land for themselves. These new settlements claimed by the French in the AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s whereÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The natives were impressed by all the new technology that was brought by them which then they traded among each other. These trades are the only thing that kept them in contact with one another. The Spanish on the other hand were the ones that maintained the important land and had to deal and make peace with natives. The Spanish came to the lower new world and face different natives and along the way became friends. The Spanish came to control all of the Florida parishes and all of Louisiana and the Mississippi River. All of the natives in these areas formed a treaty between theses two cultured groups. In Mississippi River Valley region shaped the means of production of these goods for the Spanish and also formed unique way of trade. The trade routes up and down the Mississippi came to be successful by running such goods; as deer skins, liquors, tools, and foods to develop a well marketplace over many years. Like all good trade routes, came fights and wars between the different countries and the natives. The Mississippi River was a very important aspect to the natives because it was their main source or trade with the Spanish during these times. Natives were known as the Ã¢â¬Å"middle menÃ¢â¬ between all of the countries in the new world for trade. All throughout the new world the Native Americans were treated poorly, because they were different from the Europeans. They were judged as savages with no social class and culture. Soon to come the Europeans were takingShow MoreRelatedConflict Between Native Americans And Early Euro American Settlers1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesClashes between the Native Americans and early Euro-American settlers were inevitable. These two groups of people were different in a number of ways ranging from language, culture, and spiritual way-of-life. Where we see these people groups ultimately at odds is in their beliefs relating to land. The Native Americans had settled in the land years before the arrival of the Euro-Americans. Hundreds of Native American groups occupied the land, each tribe with its separate culture, language, and spiritualRead MoreNative American And English Colonists1056 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRoanoke. English settlers then tried again for a permanent settlement in the early 1600s with Jamestown. Following Jamestown the English were consistently sending new colonists from England to America. The first English settlers had faced quite the hardships. None of the colonists were prepared or equipped with the knowledge to survive in their new environment. This is where Native American and English colonists interactions began. Prior to English settlers, the Native Americans had also had interactionsRead MoreEnglish Relationship Between English Indians And Native Americans1092 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbetween English settlers and Native American tribes were central to both the successes and the failures of the early English colonies in America. Although conflict often characterized relationships between the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"IndiansÃ¢â¬ and the English, many of the initial colonies owed their survival and successes to the natives. The Native Americans were valuable trading partners, occasional allies, and aid in sickness and famine. However, various conflicts between tribes and settlers lead to attacksRead MoreNative North Americans : Justification For Indians1545 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Native North Americans: Justification for Indians Ã Ã Ã Throughout the history of America many people, and even countries have helped create the government and all the cities to be what they are today. Ã Without those who traveled here in the 15th, and 16th century many of us wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be here now; living free, and comfortably with many jobs and opportunities for ourselves. With greatness there is always a downfall, but because we worship and thank early settlers we do not pay much mind to those whoRead MoreNative Americans And American History988 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshistory, relationships between the Native Americans and the United States have been nothing but battle torn, and unfortunately have followed a consistent path of betrayal. There is no denying the universal fact that Native Americans have been unfairly treated and portrayed throughout American history. According to American history written during and after the war the Indian Wars that occurred were very subjective, and prejudiced in its depiction of the Native Americans. For example one work, The PioneerRead MoreAmerindian Arguments and Actions Essay771 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Native American chronicle is one of treachery and death. These Indians lived lives of concord and prosperity for centuries. However, their reign terminated with the arrival of European settlers in the 15th century. The arising onslaught of foreign colonists is considered by some to be the initiation of the Ã¢â¬Å"American HolocaustÃ¢â¬ (Native American Genocide). The immigrants did not share customs or spiritual views with the Native people, so they attempted to annihilate the Native American populaceRead MoreThe Native Americans And Merchants1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDisaster Through reading this book I have discovered how well the Native Americans and merchants actually got along, early on. The Natives in the coastal villages had started trading with merchants early on in primitive, yet intelligent ways. Giovanni da Verrazzano reported, Ã¢â¬Å"They sent us what they wanted to give us on a rope continually shouting to us not to approach the land.Ã¢â¬ (Cronon 83) He also reported how the Native Americans would only meet them on very rocky tracts of coast where they couldRead More Race Conflict and Issues: Whites and Non-Whites Post- Revolution1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEuropean settlers have a long history of mistreating Native Americans. The most famous example is the Trail of Tears in which President Van Buren and the federal government forcibly and violently removed Cherokee Indians in 1838 from their native land. Over 18 thousand Cherokee women, men and children were forced to walk 1,000 miles from Georgia to Oklahoma. Of these people, 4,000 died fr om harsh weather, starvation and exposure to illnesses. European settlers during this time viewed Native AmericansRead MoreDid American Exceptionalism Cause Irreparable Damage or Spell Success1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmany facets that every piece of history possesses. In the evaluation of American exceptionalism it is essential to consider what exceptionalism is and how it has been integral in production of the modern day United States of America. As a result of exceptionalism and indeed expansionism in America it is also of supreme importance to look into the effects of such a radical policy, in particular the plight of the native Americans, how their lives were changed and in many cases destroyed because of Anglo-SaxonRead MoreNative American And The Early Republic Essay1226 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdone to it. The natives that were left behind unharmed then rebuilt homes. Ã¢â¬Å"For all the devastation they suffered, Indians remained a force to be reckoned with during and after the Revolution. Most survived the destruction of their villages and cornfields. The Shawnees, for example, sustained minimal casualties when the Americans invaded their country, withdrew before the invaders, then returned and rebuilt their villages when the enemy retreated.Ã¢â¬ ( Native American and the Early Republic) Even